1. What are cookies?
A cookie is a small file formed of letters and numbers that will be stored on your computer, mobile device or other user equipment used to access the internet. A cookie is installed by a request sent from a web page's server to the browser (for example: Internet Explorer, Chrome), and is completely "passive" (contains no software programs, viruses or spyware and does not access information from the user's hardware).

2. What are cookies used for?
These files make it possible to know the user's device and present its content in a relevant way, adapted to the user's preferences. Cookies provide the user with a pleasant experience while navigating the Internet.

3. We use two types of cookies - per user session and fixed.
The latter are temporary files that remain on the user's device until the end of the user session or until the application (web browser) is closed. Fixed files remain on the user's device for the period parameterised by the cookies or until they are manually deleted by the user.

4. Do cookies contain personal data?
Cookies themselves do not require personally identifiable information in order to be used and most often do not identify Internet users. Personal data collected through the use of cookies may only be collected to facilitate the user's use. This data is encrypted in a way that prevents unauthorized persons from accessing it.

5. Deleting cookies
Generally, an application for accessing web pages allows cookies to be stored by default. These settings can be changed so that the automatic management of cookies is blocked by the web browser or the user is informed each time cookies are sent to his terminal. Detailed information on the options and methods of cookie management can be found in the application (web browser) settings. Restricting the use of cookies may affect some functions of the web page.

6. Why are cookies important for the Internet?
Cookies are central to the efficient functioning of the Internet, helping to draw a certain pattern of preferences and interests of each user. Disagreeing with or disabling cookies can make some sites impossible to use. Disagreeing with or disabling cookies does not mean that you will no longer receive online advertisements, but that these will no longer appear in your account as favorites and interests collected through your browsing behavior. Examples of important roles for cookies (that do not require authentication through an account):

Content and services tailored to user preferences - categories of products and services. Offers tailored to user preferences - remembering passwords. Remembering child-proofing filters on internet content (family mode option, safe search feature). Limiting the frequency of ad use - limiting the placement of an ad for a particular site user. Providing ads that would be of interest to the user. Measurement, optimization and features from analytics - how to p Websites develop these analytics and their use in order to improve the site for the benefit of users.

7. Security and Privacy
Cookies are NOT viruses! They use the form of plain text. They are not made up of pieces of code, so they cannot be executed or run on their own. Therefore, they cannot be duplicated or copied to other networks to run or copy themselves again. Because they cannot perform these functions, they cannot be considered viruses.

Cookies can still be used for negative purposes. Because they store information about the user's preferences and also browsing history, both on a particular site and on most other sites, cookies can be used as a form of Spyware. Many anti-spyware programs are not aware of this fact and constantly flag cookies to be removed during removal/scanning/anti-virus/anti-spyware procedures.

Browsers typically have built-in privacy settings that provide different levels of cookie acceptance, expiration periods, and automatic deletion once a user has visited a site.

Other security aspects related to cookies: since the protection of personal data is extremely important and represents the right of every Internet user, it is recommended to be aware of the possible problems that cookies can create. Through them, information is constantly and bi-directionally sent between the browser and the website, and in the event that a hacker or other unauthorized person interferes while the data is being sent, then the information contained in cookies may be intercepted.


In rare cases, this can happen if the browser connects to the server using an unencrypted network (for example: a wireless non-password protected network).

Another type of cookie-based attack requires incorrect cookie settings on the server. If a website does not require browsers to use only encrypted channels, hackers can exploit this vulnerability to trick browsers into sending information over the unprotected channels. Hackers then use the information to gain unauthorised access to websites. It is very important to be careful when choosing the most appropriate privacy protection. Tips for secure and responsible cookie-based browsing.

Thanks to their flexibility and the fact that most of the most visited and largest sites use cookies, the latter are almost inevitable. Disabling cookies will not allow the user to access the most frequented and used sites, among them Youtube, Gmail, Yahoo and others. Here are a few tips that can ensure a carefree browsing experience but with the help of cookies.

Customize your browser's cookie settings to create an appropriate level of cookie protection.

  • If you are not bothered by the use of cookies and you are the only person using the computer, you can set longer expiration dates for the storage of browsing history and access to personal data.
  • If you share access to your computer with someone, you can count your browser settings as deleting your personal browsing data every time you close the browser. This is the option for accessing the sites that distribute cookies and for deleting any information when you visit when you close your browsing session.
  • Install and maintain anti-spyware applications consistently. Many spyware detection and prevention applications include the detection of attacks on sites. This prevents the browser from being accessed by sites that could exploit browser vulnerabilities or download malware.
  • Make sure your browser is always up to date.

Many cookie-based attacks are implemented by exploiting the weaknesses of old and outdated browser versions. Cookies are everywhere and cannot be avoided if you want to enjoy access to the best and biggest websites - locally and internationally. With a clear understanding of how they operate and the benefits they bring, you can take the necessary security measures so that you can surf the web with confidence. Disabling or refusing to receive cookies can make some sites unusable or difficult to visit and use. Also, refusing to accept cookies does not mean that you will no longer receive/see online advertisements. All modern browsers offer the possibility to change cookie settings. These settings are generally found in the "options" or "preferences" menu of your browser. To find these settings, you can also use the links below or use your browser's "help" option for more details.

Cookie settings in Internet Explorer
Cookie settings in Firefox
Cookie settings in Chrome
Cookie settings in Safari